كيف تُخلق النقود؟

من الأسئلة الاقتصادية التي تراود بعضنا في صغره: كيف تُخلق النقود؟ ومن أين تأتي؟ وبما أنها مجرد أوراق لا قيمة حقيقية لذاتها وكلفة طباعتها منخفضة، فلماذا لا تقوم الدولة بطباعة عدد لا نهائي من النقود وتوزعه على الناس، وكانت الإجابات تختلف وتختلف دقتها وصحتها، ولكن غالبيتها كانت إجابات خاطئة، فبعضهم كان يقول أن هناك جهة دولية تراقب طباعة النقود لكل دولة، ولا تسمح هذه الجهة الرقابية أن تقوم الدولة بطباعة ما تريد من نقود، وهذه الإجابة بكل تأكيد غير صحيحة، والإجابة الأخرى وهي أكثر منطقية تقول أن كل دولة تطبع من النقود بمقدار ما تملك من ذهب، فكل ورقة نقدية يقابلها كمية من الذهب تمتلكه الدولة، وهذه الإجابة غير صحيحة أيضا، فغالبية دول العالم ومن ضمنها السعودية ليس لديها من الذهب ما يكفي لتغطية قيمة النقود المتداولة من عملتها في السوق وقد تم فصل ارتباط العملات بالذهب لأغلب الدول منذ أكثر من 40 سنة. إذن على أي أساس يتم طباعة النقود وخلقها؟

دور النقود الأساسي هو أن تكون وسيلة سهلة لتبادل السلع والخدمات، وحتى يقبل الناس استخدامها للبيع والشراء فيجب أن تكون هناك ثقة بين الناس في قدرة هذه النقود على الشراء، وثقة بأن قيمة هذه النقود مستقرة نسبيا، حتى يتمكن المتداولون من استخدامها واعتبارها وعاء لحفظ القيمة، يستخدمها حاملها عند الحاجة، ولذلك فإن الحكومات، أو البنوك المركزية بالتحديد، تعمل من أجل استقرار قيمة عملاتها من خلال ضخ سيولة تتناسب مع حجم الاقتصاد وحجم النمو، فأي زيادة في ضخ النقد، والذي يتم من خلال وسائل فنية متعددة ليست محل الشرح في هذا المقال، ستؤدي إلى التضخم وفقدان النقد لقدرته الشرائية، واذا تجاوز ضخ السيولة المعدل المناسب قد يخرج الأمر عن السيطرة فتتناقص قيمة العملة بنسب ضخمة، كما حدث في زيمبابوي حيث وصل التضخم فيها أكثر من ستة آلاف مليار مليار (رقم 6 وبجانبه 21 صفر)، وتمت طباعة أوراق نقدية قيمة الواحدة منها 100 مليار، ما فعلته زيمبابوي هو تحقيق لما يفكر فيه كثير من الأطفال، قاموا بطباعة عدد لا نهائي من العملة، ووزعوه على المواطنين، ولكن فقدت العملة قيمتها بشكل كامل تقريبا، وفي عام 2009 تم التوقف عن استخدام عملتهم وبدأوا باستخدام عملات دول أخرى.

ولذلك فإن العملة يجب أن تخلق بشكل يتناسب مع حجم ما تنتجه الدولة من سلع وخدمات والذي يمكن معرفته بشكل تقريبي من خلال الناتج القومي للاقتصاد، وكلما ارتفعت الانتاجية ونما الناتج القومي كلما استطاع الاقتصاد استيعاب كميّات أكبر من النقود المتداولة من دون أن ترفع هذه الكميات من نسب التضخم بشكل كبير، في المقال القادم سأستكمل الحديث عن العملة والتبادل التجاري بين الدول.

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21 thoughts on “كيف تُخلق النقود؟

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    مقال جميل
    مع وصول الربيع العربي إلى اليمن , خاف التجار على ما يملكونة من العملة اليمنية من الانخفاض المتوقع , فحاول الكثيرين سحب الاموال من البنوك وتحويلها لعملات أخرى , الان تصل فوائد الودائع البنكية إلى 25% وهي نسبة كبيرة , ذالك لأغراء التجار على العملة اليمنية

    معلومة : الريال السعودي = 55 ريال يمني

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